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  • Longitudinal CSF and MRI biomarkers improve the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment - March 2006
    The diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is limited because it is based on non-specific behavioral and neuroimaging findings.  Multiple CSF biomarkers were measured in this 2-year longitudinal  study of MCI patients and normal elderly controls. Relative to controls, MCI patients showed decreased memory and hippocampal volumes and elevated levels of p-Tau231 indicating that the use of this CSF biomarker contributed to the characterization of MCI.   Results of this study were published in the journal Neurobiology of Aging (Volume 27, pages 394-401).
  • Increased levels of p-tau 231 in Mild Cognitive Impairment  - December 2005
    The presence of 1 or more  apolipoprotein E e4 alleles (apoE e4) is a major risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease although by itself, this genetic information is not diagnostic.  In individuals with MCI who later converted to AD, baseline CSF levels of the p-tau231 biomarker were significantly higher in apoE e4 carriers compared to non-carriers.  These results were reported in Neuroscience Letters (Volume 391, pages 48-50).
  • Cell-Cycle Reentry and Cell Death in Transgenic Mice - June 2005
    This study investigates the mechanisms of neuronal death in the Companies transgenic mice expressing nonmutant human tau in the absence of mouse tau.  The aged mice developed neurofibrillary tangles, a hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease, and had extensive neuronal cell death.   The mechanism of neurodegeneration involved reexpression of cell-cycle proteins and DNA synthesis, indicating that the human tau pathology and neurodegeneration  appear to be linked via an abnormal and incomplete cell-cycle reentry.  This study appeared in The Journal of Neuroscience (Volume 25, pages 5446-5454).
  • Correlation of p-tau 231 with brain atrophy in Alzheimer’s Disease - May 2005
    Levels of the p-tau231 biomarker in CSF were shown do correlate with the reduction of hippocampal volumes as measured by MRI.  These findings demonstrate that variations in p-tau231 levels may be used to predict progression of brain atrophy in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.  The study entitled “Corrleation of Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels of Tau Protein Phosphorylated at Threonine 231 with Rates of Hippocampal Atrophy in Alzheimer Disease” appears in the May issue of Archives of Neurology (Volume 62, pages 770-773).
  • Early Detection of Alzheimer's Disease - September 2004 

    This study, which appeared in the Journal of Internal Medicine, validates the use of our biomarker, p-tau 231, found in spinal fluid, as a possible early test for Alzheimer's disease (AD) when used in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).  MRI images show brain shrinkage in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, but cannot positively identify the cause.  The p-tau 231 marker, elevated only in patients with AD, was found to be a vital tool in determining who had Alzheimer's among the normal elderly and how it would progress.

    MRI and CSF studies in the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease
  • Comparisons with Innogenetics and Mitsubishi - January 2004 

    In this independent, multicenter study of 206 patient samples, all three assays studied were successful in distinguishing between AD patients and normal controls.  While the diagnostic tests developed by APNS and Innogenetics were each successful in distinguishing between AD, other dementias and depression, the APNS assay outperformed Innogenetics in four of five categories studied.  Combination tests were not found to be more effective than the APNS test alone.  The study, entitled “Measurement of Phosphorylated Tau Epitopes in the Differential Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease” appears in the January issue of Archives of General Psychiatry (Volume 61, pages 95-102).

  • Genetically-Altered Mice - April 2003

    In this study, which has important implications for drug development, our scientific team reports on the first research animal to develop tangles, (a key pathology of Alzheimer's disease) and subsequent neuronal degeneration.  This study appeared in the Journal of Neurochemistry.
    Hyperphorylation and aggregation of tau in mice expressing normal human tau isoforms

  • CSF Assay and Depression - February 2003

    This study, which appeared in the American Journal of Psychiatry, reports on the ability of the CSF assay to distinguish between Alzheimer's disease and major depression.
    Differentiation of Geriatric Major Depression From Alzheimer's Disease With CSF Tau Protein Phosphorylated at Theonine 231 

  • CSF Assay & Mild Cognitive Impairment - August 2002

    This is the first in a series of studies in collaboration with scientists at NYU which use the CSF assay along with MRI technology to follow the cognitive decline in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients.  It appeared in the journal Neuroscience Letters.
    Neuroscience Letters 333(2000)183-186

  • CSF Assay and Other Dementias - August 2002

    This study, which appeared in Archives of Neurology, reports on the ability of the CSF assay to distinguish between AD, other neurological diseases such as ALS and Huntington’s disease and dementias including frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia and Lewy body disease.
    Differential Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease with Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels of Tau Protein Phophorylated at Threonine 231

  • CSF Assay - Initial Published Paper - May 2000

    The original May 2000 publication in Neuroscience Letters describes the overall performance of the Company's CSF (Cerebrospinal Fluid) Assay.
    Neuroscience Letters 287(2000)187-190

  • Two Distinguished Panel Reports on the State of the Field Today in AD Diagnostics 

    These reports were prepared by the Ronald and Nancy Reagan Research Group of the Alzheimer's Association and the National Institute On Aging working group.  The first report proposes criteria for a good diagnostic test.  The second report maps the field.  Significantly, our biomarker (pTau Protein) was rated in the highest category, as both "Core" and "Feasible."
    Biological markers for therapeutic trials in Alzheimer's disease Proceedings of the biological markers working group; NIA initiative on neuroimaging in Alzheimer's disease

    Consensus Report of the Working Group on:  "Molecular and Biochemical Markers of Alzheimer's Disease"